Some history of ‘White Supremacy’ in New Zealand

‘White Supremacist’ is being used to describe a radical fringe in new Zealand in the wake of the Christchurch Mosque massacres.

Last week Christ Trotter () tweeted:

He was referring to a post at Bowalley Road: What Is A White Supremacist? (edited)

THE TERM “WHITE SUPREMACIST” is rapidly replacing the more straightforward “racist” in mainstream journalism.

On social media, especially Twitter, the term is being used, anachronistically, to characterise the ideas of explorers and colonialists living in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. While it is not unusual to encounter such terminological misuse in the writings of radical post-modernists, it is worrying to see the mainstream media subsume so many different historical and ideological phenomena into this single, catch-all, expression.

The current misuse of the term “white supremacy” is also highly dangerous politically. By singling out this particular form of racism and misapplying it to famous figures from the past, as well as to people living in the present, the users of the term risk not only its rapid devaluation, but also the angry retaliation of those who feel both themselves and their beliefs to have been wrongly and unfairly condemned.

It refers, primarily, to the political regimes which arose in the southern states of the USA in the years following the American Civil War – most particularly in the decades immediately following the withdrawal of federal troops from the states of the defeated Confederacy in 1877.

These regimes were built on the bedrock requirement that whites must in all conceivable circumstances: economic, social, cultural, legal and political; be placed ahead of and above blacks. The poorest and most ill-educated white farmer had to be able to count himself better off, both subjectively and objectively, than his black neighbours. White supremacy wasn’t just a matter of personal racial animus, it described a comprehensive and internally coherent system of race-based rule.

A “white supremacist”, accordingly, is a person who not only subscribes to the principles underpinning the infamous “Jim Crow” system, but also – like the contemporary Ku Klux Klan – strives for its return. Obviously, the term may also be legitimately applied to the very similar systems of race-based rule erected in South Africa and Rhodesia between 1948 and 1992.

Simple racial chauvinism is very different from the conscious creation of a race-based economic and political system. If, however, the media persists in lumping together every Pakeha who takes pride in the achievements of western civilisation with avowed Nazis, like Philip Arps, or genocidal eco-fascists, like the Christchurch shooter, then not only will the charge lose all its definitional and moral force, but, sooner or later, those so lumped will come to the conclusion that they might as well be hung for sheep as lambs.

Those on the Left who are promoting the use of this term, presumably as a way of shaming Pakeha New Zealanders into acknowledging and renouncing their “white privilege”, may soon come to regret driving their boots so forcefully into such a large pack of sleeping dogs

Scott Hamilton ( responded on Twitter): “Just like South Africa & Australia, NZ deployed a mixture of segregationist & assimilationist policies towards non-white peoples in the 19th & 20th centuries. ”


In his new column my friend Chris Trotter argues NZ was never a white supremacist society, like South Africa or America. I think Chris’ case rests on a false dichotomy & on a denial of the historical record. I want to argue against him & post a few old documents.

Chris argues that NZ doesn’t have a white supremacist history, because white settlers sought to assimilate Maori, rather than segregate the races. But settler societies have commonly deployed both assimilationist & segregationist policies. The two can complement each other.

Let’s consider the case of South Africa, which Chris cites as the sort of white supremacist society NZ was not. Apartheid-era SA was notorious for isolating its non-white peoples. It had laws against miscegenation, & segregated toilets. But SA also practiced assimilationism.

The Soweto uprising of 1976 began as a protest against the attempts of South Africa’s rulers to assimilate blacks linguistically. Black schoolkids rejected the demand that they use Afrikaans, the language of their oppressors, in the classroom.

Australia offers another example of a settler society combining segregation with assimilationism. Before 1968 Aboriginals were isolated from other ethnic groups in Australia. Their movements were restricted; they could not participate in electoral politics.

But Aboriginal Australians also suffered from assimilationist policies. White administrators created a ‘stolen generation’, by removing half-caste children from Aboriginal mothers, & making sure they were raised in a white world. This policy was s’posed to ‘whiten’ Aboriginals.

Just like South Africa & Australia, NZ deployed a mixture of segregationist & assimilationist policies towards non-white peoples in the 19th & 20th centuries.

The attempts at assimilation, like the demand Maori kids use English at school, are infamous; the segregationism is not.

Although settler governmentsts allowed Pakeha to serve on juries considering cases involving Maori, the ban on Maori serving on general juries lasted until 1962. Maori were not considered fit to judge whites, just as SA blacks were kept off juries in that country.

Chris contrasts NZ with America in its ‘Jim Crow’ era, when both public facilities & private businesses often segregated white & non-white patrons. The segregated rest rooms of mid-century America are notorious. But few Pakeha know that NZ had the same facilities.

It is not possible yet for me to give an exhaustive account of the segregation of rest rooms in NZ, but my research suggests that the practice was widespread. I want to offer a few examples, with the help of old newspapers.

In 1936 Maori inhabitants of Tauranga protested against their exclusion from the town’s rest rooms, & from some rest rooms that were being planned. In response, Tauranga’s mayor said that Maori wld have to donate some land, if they wanted to get their own, segregated, toilets

Hamilton was another town with whites-only rest rooms. In 1945 the Waikato Times reported the standoff between the city’s mayor & the Maori community. The mayor wanted Maori to pay for a segregated toilet; Maori rejected his request.

Maori had always resented the segregation of rest rooms, but by the late ’40s they were being joined by Pakeha. When Gisborne councillors announced plans for whites-only women’s rest rooms in 1949, locals of both ethnicities wrote angry letters to their local paper.

Kaitaia was another town that saw protests over segregated rest rooms in the ’40s. When the rest rooms were being planned, local politicians had happily broadcast their plans for segregation. Their insouciance tells us something about the prevalence of segregation at the time.

Rest rooms were not the only public facilities that local politicians tried to bar Maori from in early 20th C NZ. In 1921 the Waipa District Council closed Te Awamutu’s fledgling library, because it was being visited by too many ‘undesirable’ elements, like ‘Maoris’ & ‘dogs’.

Private businesses as well as public amenities often practiced segregation in NZ. A 1938 survey found that 26 of Hamilton’s 27 hotels & hostels refused to host Maori. Local politicians suggested building a Maori-only hostel.

It was not only Maori who suffered from segregation in 20th C New Zealand. Indian & Chinese migrants often found themselves barred from taverns, barbers, and swimming pools. In 1918 Hamilton’s Indians protested their inability to get a haircut.

Jelal Natali was a campaigner for the civil rights of Indian Kiwis for decades. In the ’20s Natali protested against the segregation of Auckland’s tepid baths, pointing that all but one of the facility’s pools were reserved for whites.

Sometimes segregation led to violence. On February 25, 1920, at a time when NZ troops were fighting Indian sugar workers in a turbulent Fiji, a group of Indians were ejected from a tavern in Te Awamutu. White patrons followed them onto the footpath, and a riot began.

Chris contrasts the US, with its Ku Klux Klan, with NZ. He appears not to know that the KKK was violently active here in the 1920s, when it formed in opposition to Asian migration. In 1923 the KKK took responsibility for attacks on businesses in Auckland & in Christchurch.

Chris might argue that the KKK was, in NZ, a short-lived & uninfluential organisation. He’d be right, but other, much larger & more powerful groups aligned themselves with the KKK. One was the Protestant Political Association, whose leader Howard Elliott praised the Klan.

The White NZ League was another influential organisation that shared the goals of the Klan. The League formed in 1926, & called for the deportation of all non-white migrants from NZ. It was endorsed by the RSA & by Auckland’s Trade Union Council.

The White NZ League was based in Pukekohe, & helped to enforce the segregation of South Auckland’s pubs, barber shops, & cinemas. In 1959 a major civil rights battle began when Dr Rongomanu Bennett tried to get a drink at Papakura Hotel, and was turned away.

Dr Bennett had many contacts in politics & the media, & he made sure Papakura’s refusal to serve him a drink was reported widely. The suburb was dubbed ‘the Little Rock of NZ’ by some journalists. PM Walter Nash eventually intervened, & the colour bar at Papakura ended.

How widespread, in the postwar era, was the sort of colour bar Rongomau Bennett encountered in Papakura? While researching my book Ghost South Road, I focused on the Waikato & South Auckland. But Noel Hilliard’s 1960 novel Maori Girl suggests it extended beyond the north.

Hilliard’s autobiographical account of a cross-racial marriage caused a sensation when it was published. Hilliard described the open prejudice of Wellingtonian business owners – hoteliers, for example – who refused Maori clients.

Of course, NZ was never a mirror image of the Jim Crow US, or South Africa. Maori like Carroll & Ngata rose to positions of power. Interracial marriages were never banned. But segregation as well as assimilationism is part of our history, contra what claims.

 

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87 Comments

  1. Zedd

     /  24th June 2019

    great content PG

    YES racism is a multi-directional crossroads ki tenei whenua. As long as we continue to label each other, then long may it continue; in all directions. Aotearoa/NZ is no longer the land of ‘maori & pakeha’ & there is definately an underbelly of ideologies.. with itchy fingers

    I wonder whether the electoral commission would accept a request to register a
    ‘Pakeha’ or ‘white folks party’ BUT they dont see a problem with the ‘maori party’

    btw: the KKK are wearing old RCC outfits

    “Form one Planet” one race.. the humans

    Reply
    • I am sure that I have heard that the no sales of alcohol to Maori was not a Pakeha initiative but a Maori one because of the effect that alcohol had.

      People like the unlovely Philip Arps are not just racist, they are white supremacists. Racism is NOT confined to white people.

      Reply
      • Kitty Catkin

         /  24th June 2019

        One incident (unsubstantiated) of a KKK supporter in the 20s doesn’t indicate that it was active here at any time. It’s unlikely to have gone unnoticed, given the KKK’s love of publicity.

        I have some old school exercises, the oldest dated 1917, which are Maori/English translations. This gives the lie direct to the idea that it was banned from schools. We learned songs, action and others, in Maori, and such is the power of music that I can still sing them. We were taught poi dances (waste of time in my case, I was useless at this and tangled them every time) and other things.

        Unless someone is going to spend their life on a marae, English (the lingua franca of the world) is essential. It’s a case of being realistic.

        Reply
        • Of course it’s a waste of time for you – you’re not Mâori. The language, waiata, dances are for Măori, that’s why it makes zero sense for you to be any good at it.

          Besides, despite you being of European stock, I bet you’ve learned no other language except English. Real Europeans who can speak several languages find people like you absolutely ridiculous because you show your racism so clearly by disparaging te reo Māori and not accepting that it’s the native language of Āotearoa, and not understanding hardly any of it though you were probably born here. How embarrassing!

          Reply
          • FarmerPete

             /  25th June 2019

            How about you just stick to making reasoned arguments and leave the personal attacks out of it. Personal abuse is the refuge of those who can’t make a logical case to support their views.

            Reply
            • Kitty Catkin

               /  25th June 2019

              …especially when the abuser doesn’t know the person whom they are abusing so has to make up lies to support their vews….

            • How about you stick to farming and poisoning our waterways?

          • How on earth someone could read all that into one sentence is a real mystery. I said that it was a waste of timetrying to teach ME to do poi dances because I was useless at it and tangled them ! I take it that spiriitualalchemy69’s reading and comprehension skills are not very good.

            I do understand some Maori (the claim that it’s the NATIVE language is dubious when Maori was brought here as we learned at school) although I can’t speak it. If I ‘didn’t understand HARDLY ANY OF IT as you claim, that would mean that I DID understand a lot of it . One of my bridesmaids was Maori, as it happens, so your unfounded claim of my being a racist doesn’t stand up.

            As for other languages that I know…let me see…

            Latin (school and university)
            French (ditto)
            German (school)
            Spanish (university)
            Italian (university)
            Dutch/Flemish (lived in Belgium for almost a year)
            Roumanian (can read a little because of knowing Latin)
            Old English/Anglo-Saxon (university)

            I picked up some Russian at one time, but couldn’t speak it although I was able to sing the chants in church and could read the notices. I began Greek but didn’t carry on so can’t count that.

            Reply
            • Shut up and stop writing. It’s not interesting.

            • Kitty Catkin

               /  30th June 2019

              It may not be interesting to you that I choose to refute the words of someone who doesn’t know me lies about me and makes baseless assumptions, as well as grossly distorting what I say. I will not accept this treatment and say nothing because it bores you. This fool took it for granted that I was a racist, someone who knows no language other than English and made other false statements which I decided to refute. Nobody obliged you to read it.

              I have no idea why you are so rude, that is your problem. Being rude is not interesting, so I suggest that you take your own advice.

          • Kitty Catkin

             /  25th June 2019

            What makes S69 think that I am of European stock ? Which European country does he mean, or is he unaware that Europe is not a country but a continent ?

            Reply
      • Except you’re literally living in a country colonized by the British who then proceeded to take the land, suppress the language, attempt segregation and then refashion history to say pre-Māori Celts lived here. A few resentful side comments calling whites “ballheads and honkies” really cannot compare.

        Reply
        • Kitty Catkin

           /  25th June 2019

          Honkies ? Are you American, perchance ?

          In fact the language wasn’t suppressed or it would have died out. The 1917 and later school exercises prove that it was taught.

          I have never heard that the British refashioned history by claiming that pre-Maori Celts lived here; what nonsense. We know that Moriori were here before any Maori was, a historical fact. How could a Celt from so long ago make it down here in the boats that were around then ? Nobody would take this seriously. Or do you think that Moriori are Celtic ?

          Reply
          • Kitty Catkin

             /  25th June 2019

            It would be difficult to be metaphorically living here.

            Reply
            • Griff.

               /  25th June 2019

              We know that Moriori were here before any Maori was?
              Umm no
              Wiki
              The Moriori are the indigenous Polynesian people of the Chatham Islands (Rēkohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), New Zealand. Moriori originated from Māori settlers from the New Zealand mainland around the year 1500.[2] This was near the time of the shift from the Archaic to Classic Māori culture on the main islands of New Zealand.[3][4] Oral tradition records multiple waves of migration to the Chatham Islands.[5][6] Over several centuries these settlers’ culture diverged from mainland Māori, developing a distinctive dialect, mythology, artistic expression and way of life.[7]

              As to Celts
              They did not have the abilty to ocean voyage when the Polynesians were conquering the pacific ocean.
              Anyone who has actually done an ocean voyage from NZ would tell you the Celt myth is absurd.

            • Well, people were going on ocean voyages….but to NZ from Europe ? Dream on, whoever thinks that. Across the Channel, yes, but 12,000 miles ?

            • Two igorant people seem to have little idea of how far ships could go in the distant past. These were sailing ships, people, not modern ocean liners. It’s amazing that anyone could imagine that these tiny vessels could travel from Europe to NZ.

            • Kitty Catkin

               /  26th June 2019

              And the band played ‘Believe It If You Like.’

          • Moriori were a tribe of people who connect to Māori people through whakapapa, as with all people through the Moana. We the same people. And yes, there is A LOT of writing and positing by white NZers and people in Europe that Celts somehow magically lived here before Māori

            Reply
            • SOME white NZers, you mean; a small number. Not all. Don’t assume that because a few do, all or even many do. I would hardly say that there is a LOT of belief in this absurdity.

            • Kitty, that myth about Moriori has been published in school journals, read by every child attending school between the 1950s and today. Yes, it’s absurd that so many people’s education is grounded in such nonsense

          • Ah jaysus – the Moriori drivel again. How did whites become the Master race? Because examples like you are thick asf! Moriori are from the Chathams. They still exist today. You really sound stupid. Your theory has been blown out of the water by modern historians. Read a book sometime, dear.

            Reply
          • Moriori are Polynesisns who came here at the same time as tangata whenua. The difference is that they settled the Chathams and evolvee into a Pacifist culture – which they call *Rekohu *. Why do so many whites get this wrong?

            Reply
  2. NOEL

     /  24th June 2019

    1970 Wellington. Mates Maori partner went to check out a rental and came back empty handed.
    Mate and I put on our Service Dress uniforms went to the address and came back with a rental agreement.

    Reply
  3. Corky

     /  24th June 2019

    The beauty about all of the above was Maori knew where they stood. Once that type of segregation ended and Pakeha realised the old ways were becoming unacceptable, at least in public, Maori had to develop a a radar to detect European who had mastered the art of a smiling face and lip service to Maori needs. Ironically, from what I experienced, Maori felt more at home with Europeans who expressed some racist views.

    But NZ is unique when it comes to past and present race relations. Racism sits side by side with an attempt to give Maori a fair deal. A very strange amalgam

    ‘White Supremacist’ is an oxymoron in the present political climate.

    I wonder if they still read ”Maori Boy” and ”Maori Girl” at college?` Hell, no!

    Reply
    • Kitty Catkin

       /  24th June 2019

      You make a lot of racist remarks about ‘mahdees’ and ‘ferals’ so can hardly talk about other people being racist towards Maori.

      Reply
      • Kitty Catkin

         /  24th June 2019

        I fail to see how white supremacy is an oxymoron in today’s climate. It most certainly exists. Philip Arps is not the only one in NZ, I wish he was.The numbers are small, but they are there.

        ‘Maori Boy’ (Whiti Ihimaera) was only written in 2016, so may not even have been around long enough to be a set text yet.

        Reply
    • Conspiratoor

       /  24th June 2019

      “Maori felt more at home with Europeans who expressed some racist views”

      Interesting observation corky. Take three white blokes whose vernacular would put them in the racist camp by today’s barometer – murray ball, john clarke and barry crump. Lets imagine they are brought back to life and find themselves enjoying a peita pia in the Te Puka Tavern

      Now in walks james shaw, a paragon of WMGS

      Who is the odd man out?

      Reply
  4. Duker

     /  24th June 2019

    The assimilation policy of not allowing native language usgae at school was common elsewhere, even when they were the same race. ie In US border states with Quebec, migrants up till the 1930s went to work in US towns and their children were banned from speaking French/Quebecois at school.
    It was because of a wrong educational theory of the time that young children could only ‘learn one language’ at a time. The reverse was true and young children have a great ability to be multi lingual.

    Reply
    • That is received wisdom, but it doesn’t really stand up to scrutiny. Children take years to learn even their own language but an adult can learn a foreign language in a fairly short time. The idea that children are natural linguists has been challenged fairly convincingly.

      Not all children begin school equally articulate in their own language; a clue that being good at language/s isn’t inherent in small children.

      Reply
      • Duker

         /  25th June 2019

        Where does it not stand up to scrutiny ?
        Of course some 5 or 6 yr school age kids can be extremely articulate, doesnt hide the fact that almost all are still articulate in their first language and rapidly pick up the language of instruction fairly quickly.
        yes some adults with an affinity for learning language can pick up one with intense instruction after a short time . Most cant do it like that.

        Any the old ‘single language’ educational theory was debunked , with it being recognised that you can easily have two languages side by side in classrooms for 5+

        Reply
  5. Alan Wilkinson

     /  24th June 2019

    The Chinese were discriminated against for decades. There was a defacto white immigration policy too. Homosexuals were persecuted. Conscientious objectors were tortured in WW1. Rape in marriage was legal.

    The past was a different country. Nevertheless, worthwhile revelations there. Thanks, PG.

    Reply
    • Kitty Catkin

       /  25th June 2019

      The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there.

      LP Hartley, The Go-Between.

      Reply
  6. I think it sad that schools are teaching children to feel they have historical racial grievances. To end racial discrimination we should stop identifying people by their race rather than focusing on it.

    Reply
    • Kitty Catkin

       /  25th June 2019

      Many schools celebrate the different races who attend them.

      Reply
      • Kitty Catkin

         /  25th June 2019

        Like the one that has 55 nationalities and has had about 70……

        Reply
        • I think may be not good when people latch their identity onto a race. It’s “othering” and isolates them, why not just minimalise it… like… some people are girls and some people are boys and some have blue eyes and some have brown skin and yet others have red hair, but doesn’t actually make any difference…

          Reply
          • Kitty Catkin

             /  26th June 2019

            It does make a difference and I think that we should enjoy the differences, not try to ignore them. I make patchwork, and don’t have all the squares the same colour. I like all the different colours in the local rose garden and wouldn’t want to have them all the same. And so on. Pretending that we are all unisex clones won’t make us into clones.

            Reply
            • Sure having having lots of variation is interesting, but when you start celebrating each one specifically… it leads to discrimination, racism, sexism and prejudice.

  7. Hi Kitty, I can understand your scepticism about the KKK being in NZ, as it is an aspect of our history that has received very little attention, but I am satisfied that the organisation was present in the early ’20s. It’s not a case of relying on one unsubstantiated report. In 1923 there was a well-publicised tour of NZ by a KKK supporter, a Presbyterian minister who had worked for a long time in the US. We have a newspaper report of an appearance he made at Knox Hall in Dunedin; after he spoke in favour of the Klan, the audience unanimously moved a motion of thanks. And we have accounts of four shops being burned down in Auckland after threats by a representative of the Klan, as well as of an attack on a shop in Christchurch. Months after the attack four young men dressed in Klan regalia were caught attacking another young man, who was apparently a disgraced member of the gang. Their trial was well-publicised. We also have an Auckland Star report claiming the Klan had 900-1000 members in Auckland alone – I’d guess that was an exaggeration – a similar report about Klan activities in a Wellington paper, and a satirical song in the Maoriland Worker attacking the new movement. So there’s quite a paper trail.

    Perhaps just as important is the explicit support that Howard Eliott, the leader of the large, respectable, and influential Protestant Political Association, gave to the Klan’s ideas, and the incorporation of the Klan’s aspirations into the programme of the White NZ League, which after being founded in ’26 won the support of several MPs, some trade unions, and local politicians in Franklin and the Hutt Valley.

    It’s interesting to remember that the Klan had an earlier history in the South Pacific. It was founded in Fiji in the 1870s by Confederate settlers, and ran a terror campaign there that contributed to King Cakobau’s decision to request British annexation in 1874.

    Reply
    • Kitty Catkin

       /  25th June 2019

      I couldn’t see it being a real starter here given its history in the Southern US..

      The fact that the person said that the fires were KKK doesn’t mean that they were or even that thisconversation happened.We all heard the stories after 9-11 of people who’d asked a (guide/security guard) what it would take to destroy the World Trade Centre and been told that it would have to be a (the particular plane that DID hit them) Or people who had overslept/been delayed so were not there when it happened….

      Dickens is scathing about such people. He says that they have been everything except dead.

      Reply
      • scooter74

         /  25th June 2019

        I think you may be underestimating the links between the Confederate states a d Australasia, Kitty. After the CSA lost their war a Confederate diaspora spread through South America to the Pacific. As Gerald Horne showed in his book The White Pacific, Confederates helped launch the Pacific blackbirding trade and founded a Fijian branch of the KKK. Queensland was nicknamed the new Louisiana because so many former Confederates settles there and established plantations that ran on indentured labour

        Reply
  8. scooter74

     /  25th June 2019

    ‘Take three white blokes whose vernacular would put them in the racist camp by today’s barometer – murray ball, john clarke and barry crump’

    I don’t know about Crump, but Murray Ball and John Clarke weren’t known for casual racism. Ball was a long-time campaigner against racism. Clarke satirised it.

    Reply
    • Conspiratoor

       /  25th June 2019

      Oh dear. Did i say murray ball was a racist, or even a ‘casual racist’ whatever the f*@k that means? Did you ever enjoy a quiet beer with murray in a pubic bar before they were sanitised? No, i thought not…

      Reply
      • Kitty Catkin

         /  25th June 2019

        Sanitised pubic bars ???

        Satirists tend to satirise all kinds of people, without fear or favour.

        There will always be those who don’t have the perception to realise that something is satirical and imagine that the satirist really does think like that. It’s an occupational hazard. Some people imagined that Swift really was advocating cannibalism as a solution to famine.

        Reply
  9. scooter74

     /  25th June 2019

    ‘The beauty about all of the above [segregation in NZ] was Maori knew where they stood’

    That’s a pretty strange way of excusing the apartheid-like rules and practices that existed in NZ for many decades, and it doesn’t fit with what I’ve found in my research into the subject. Again and again, our old newspapers record protests by Maori, not to mention Asians, against racist restrictions. Hence in 1936 Tauranga Maori were protesting the town’s whites-only toilets, and Hamilton, Gisborne, and Kaitaia Maori were doing the same thing in the ’40s. Rongamau Bennett became the Rosa Parks of NZ when he refused to accept the colour bar at Papakura Hotel in 1959. There were regular and heated public debates, in the papers of the ’30s, ’40s, and ’50s, about the justice of keeping Maori apart from whites. And in 1913, when the state responded to a smallpox epidemic by banning Maori from moving about the country, there were protests.

    I don’t see any evidence that Maori acquiesced in NZ’s version of apartheid.

    Reply
    • Zedd

       /  25th June 2019

      In late 1970s, I went to a ‘outback NZ’ pub (up north) & walked into the ‘public bar’ (marked on door) & was told.. ‘you want the other bar.. for pakehas’ I looked around & indeed it was ALL maoris, 1-2 quarter-caste (?) glugging the piss down. I went into the ‘lounge bar’ & shock. horror, gasp it was all white-folk, glugging their JUGS down

      SO me thinks there is perhaps, still an undercurrent even in 2019.

      btw; ‘muslim’ is not a racist term

      Reply
      • Kitty Catkin

         /  25th June 2019

        No, Muslim isn’t one to normal people, but bigots think it is.

        Reply
    • Corky

       /  25th June 2019

      ”That’s a pretty strange way of excusing the apartheid-like rules and practices that existed in NZ for many decades, and it doesn’t fit with what I’ve found in my research into the subject”

      With respect. I’m talking from experience..albeit limited because I’m talking about the late 60s, early seventies. As in the film ”Crossroads,” when the black blues player goes back down South after decades away, only to be confronted by an obnoxious black sheriff with two white deputies…the bluesman says ” well, I can see some things have changed, but somethings are still the same.” In retrospect it was like that for me. I was learning about racism I had never perceived before. It was also the beginning of change in NZ as the old war mentality started to die. Maori were changing, too… urbanisation was happening big time.

      I did not say Maori necessarily liked how they were treated..but they knew what to expect from a racist pakeha boss for example.

      Here’s an actual example of when a Maoris ‘racist radar’
      goes off. I overheard this conversation:

      Customer to Maori mechanic: ”The old Maori guy living next to me is a mechanic. He has a sensitivity with motors like you wouldn’t believe. He’s helped a few people out over the years.
      Mate…if you are half as good as him, my car will be in good hands. He has some bloody good parties too when the whanau come to visit.”

      Beep, Beep, Beep. warning.

      Maybe 40 ago years the customer may have said to the boss within earshot of the mechanic:” That boy know what he’s doing? I don’t want a bush job done on my car.”

      In the latter case, the Maori needs to work nothing out. He knows where he stands. In the former case the Maori does not know whether he has a racist to deal with with..or just a chatty non racist customer.

      Reply
      • davelenny

         /  25th June 2019

        Great post – very informative and challenged some of my prejudices and beliefs.

        Reply
        • davelenny

           /  25th June 2019

          Oops. That was meant to be a stand alone comment, not a reply to Corky.

          Reply
          • Kitty Catkin

             /  25th June 2019

            I did wonder !!!!!

            Corky’s remarks (especially at the end) make little sense. It seemed very odd that someone would think that they were informative and challenging rather than showing Corky’s muddled prejudices and beliefs.

            Reply
            • Kitty Catkin

               /  25th June 2019

              That conversation (sic) doesn’t ring true. It’s hard to imagine anyone saying something so contrived, quite apart from a conversation needs more than one person.

  10. ‘the claim that it’s the NATIVE language is dubious when Maori was brought here as we learned at school’

    Maori evolved in Aotearoa, from an Eastern Polynesian tongue, or tongues, brought by the first settlers. If the fact that Maori belongs to a larger language school, and has many relatives and antecedents in other places, means that it isn’t ‘native’ to these islands, then virtually no language, anywhere, could be counted as native. Certainly, the English language couldn’t, under the rule you propose, be considered native to England. It evolved out of Germanic tongues brought to that country, and is classified by linguists as a West Germanic language.

    Reply
    • Kitty Catkin

       /  25th June 2019

      Did the Moriori speak Maori, then ?

      Reply
      • Kitty Catkin

         /  25th June 2019

        If it evolved, it’s not native,

        Reply
        • scooter74

           /  25th June 2019

          All languages evolved, Kitty. By your definition there is not a single native language in the world. Maori evolved in NZ from its East Polynesian antecedents just as English evolved in England from its German ancestors. It isn’t unreasonable to see Mairi as native to Aotearoa and Engliah as native to England.

          Reply
          • Kitty Catkin

             /  26th June 2019

            English evolved from many languages, not just the Jute/Anglo Saxon Germanic ones. Even ‘eeny, meeny, minee, mo’ is Pictish (or derived from the Pictish numbers). When you eat pork or mutton, you are eating what the Norman porc or mouton. If you say capital punishment, that is from Latin. Telephone is Greek, of course. It is an oversimplification to say that English evolved from its Germanic ancestors; there were people there long before the Anglo Saxons, Jutes et al arrived.

            Melvyn Bragg’s The Adventure of English is a real treat for anyone interested in the evolution of English, even someone with a university background of this.

            Reply
  11. scooter74

     /  25th June 2019

    ‘We know that Moriori were here before any Maori was, a historical fact’

    On the contrary, Kitty, the notion that Moriori were a pre-Maori people has been discredited amongst scholars since HD Skinner did the first professional research in the Chathams after WW1, and produced his book The Morioris of the Chatham Islands. Where older scholars Elsdon Best and Percy Smith had claimed Moriori were Melanesian, Skinner found their material culture, language, and skulls were obviously Polynesian. Later work, like the archaeological digs of Doug Sutton’s team in the ’70s, confirmed Skinner’s arguments. Dating of Moriori sites on the Chathams reveals them as older than early Maori sites in Aotearoa. There’s no evidence at all of a pre-Maori people in Aotearoa. Moriori culture developed in situ on the Chathams, around the 15th century. Moriori themselves have been outspoken in condemning the mythmaking around their history; their Treaty settlement last year made reference to this egregrious misrepresentation of their past. You should check out the website of their organisation the Hokotehi Trust to get a lesson in this stuff.

    The notion that Celts settled NZ before Maori has indeed been advanced by Pakeha with an anti-Maori agenda. I wrote about this back in 2008:
    http://books.scoop.co.nz/2008/11/18/no-to-nazi-pseudo-history-an-open-letter/

    Reply
  12. scooter74

     /  25th June 2019

    ‘Did the Moriori speak Maori, then ?’

    Moriori, who were not a pre-Maori people, developed their own language in the isolation of the Chathams from about the 15th century. The vocabulary survives; there are efforts to revive the language, though no one is fluent in it yet. It’s sad that, despite all the efforts at education by historians like Michael King and by Moriori themselves over recent decades, the myth of Moriori as a pre-Maori people persists in the minds of many Pakeha.

    Reply
  13. scooter74

     /  25th June 2019

    Here’s an account of the arrest of three young men outfitted in the uniform of the KKK in Christchurch in 1933:
    https://tinyurl.com/y5kzfplh
    Interesting that city’s police were reported as confirming the organisation’s existence in 1932:
    https://tinyurl.com/y6cks8b4
    I think there is rather more evidence for a KKK presence here in the ’20s than there is a for a pre-Maori civilisation…

    Reply
  14. scooter74

     /  25th June 2019

    There seemed to be a misapprehension earlier in the thread about the nature of the suppression of the Maori language in 20th and late 19th century NZ. The Maori tongue was not, as Kitty says, ever banned outright; but ever since the Native Schools Act of 1867 an official policy of eliminating the use of Maori in schools had been in effect. That’s why, right up into the 1930s, we can find Maori leaders complaining that their kids are forbidden to use, let alone study, their language in Native Schools.

    The Native Schools Act required Maori to donate land and, initially, to pay half the cost of schools; in return, the government provided teachers. The Act decreed that Maori should be the only language used in the new schools. In practice, this was often ignored for decades, because many Maori were still monolingual. When William Bird became Inspector of Native Schools in 1903, though, he enforced a strict policy of no Maori language in the classroom or the playground.

    The irony is that no such dogmatic policy existed in state schools, so the mainly Pakeha kids there might have more chance of hearing Maori than Maori students at native schools.

    Reply
    • PartisanZ

       /  26th June 2019

      scooter74 – It’s difficult to convey the respect I feel for your comments with just a ‘thumbs up’.

      te whakaute nui

      Reply
  15. PartisanZ

     /  26th June 2019

    New Zealand … mostly trapped in the denial phase of the seven stages of grief …

    A boring and repetitive denial loop …

    And maybe always will be … without our Aotearoa.

    Time to move on …

    And yes, the next stage is guilt.

    Reply
  16. Oh this is silly. There were a few racist people in the Waikato in the mid 20th Century. That’s hardly systemic on the scale of the American South or South Africa. There was no equivalent to the Democratic Party or the South African National Party in New Zealand.

    The whole reason we have newspaper records of this stuff is that it WAS unusual and NOT widely condoned, and not seen as how things ought to be. It is completely inaccurate to even compare New Zealand’s record on this issue.

    Reply
    • Kitty Catkin

       /  30th June 2019

      Well, yes, it was seen as news not what was ordinary and not worth commenting on.

      Reply
  17. Lots if words… BORING. Regardless of how you write it or what words the use, the thinking is still fucked up. Grow up old white man

    Reply
    • And you’re a cucked shill for white liberals. I hope they pat you on the head and say “there’s a good Mordi boy…”

      Reply
      • I don’t even know what you’re trying to communicate with your bad use of English

        Reply
        • My English is immaculate, and my meaning was crystal clear. But I couldn’t figure out what you meant by “what words the use”, so I’ll let others judge which of us has the best command of their language.

          Reply
          • With a PhD I can assert it clearly is not a good use of your language. But thanks for being defensive. Thanks for pointing out that spell check does not work

            Reply
            • Kitty Catkin

               /  30th June 2019

              What is your PhD in ?

            • You can assert that the moon is made of green cheese, it doesn’t make it so. Not even with a PhD in what, judging from your webpage, literally looks to be in basket weaving.

              And you believe white people deliberately engineered the HIV virus, which invalidates any pretense to intelligence you may have.

            • Thanks for reading my work 😁👍🏾

            • Oh, and fuck you… That’s how insightful I am… That a university in this colonised as fuck country would give me a PhD in basket weaving. What can you make with your hands, and do you know it well enough to become the best in the world at it? I don’t think I wrote I believe white people created HIV, bit I do believe the HIV epidemic has been created by white governments. It is a fact that the HIV epidemic is a result of inept government policy to manage health, education, immigration, tourism and food and pretty much every resource on the planet. Whitestream thinking (or rather unthinking) has created the mess of a world we live in. I can believe whatever I choose, you clearly believe some twisted shit…

  18. scooter74

     /  27th June 2019

    I think you are underestimating the scale of segregation in 20th century NZ, Blair. I have found that the segregation of rest rooms, to take one example, was widespread across the North Island. Although the Waikato for obvious reasons was a hotspot for segregation the practice extended far beyond this region. In the exchanges with Chris I mention Kaitaia, Gisborne, & Wellington. There is extensive evidence for a colour bar at taverns, hostels, barbers shops, & cinemas, & also evidence for the exclusion of Maori from some plunket nursing services and libraries. While the exclusion of non-whites from private businesses was an individual decision, the exclusion of non-whites from public favilities was the workof politicians. It was debated and voted on and written up as local bylaw or policy. And contrary to what you suggest, newspaper coverage of this stuff does not treat it as outrageous and egregious. Often papers and local politicians wonder why Maori are making a fuss about something as natural and right as racial segregation.

    Reply
  19. scooter74

     /  27th June 2019

    I dont think this subject should be thought about in terms of liberal versus conservative. It should be possible to investigate the question of whether there was segregation in NZ empirically, using not just old newdpapers but other texts. In my discussion with Chris Trotter I presented evidence for segregation in several cities and towns, from Kaitaia to Gisborne to Te Awamutu. This wasnt just a matter of the prejudice of a few busineds owners, but of the policies of public bodies like local councils.

    I don’t see the newspaper coverage of segregation in the same way as Blair. When the issue appears in papers, it isnt presented as something rare and egregious, a departure from the norm. Typically the issue is covered after Maori have protested segregation, and local politicians and business owners are presented unashamedly defending the practice as perfectly natural. Two examples I cite in the discussion with Chris are the Waikato Times report on the Maori complaints about segregated toilets in Tauranga in 1936 and the same paper’s account of the deadlock between Hamilton council and local Maori in 1945, when Maori were refysing to provide land and funding for segregated rest rooms. Neither of these newspaper articles gives any sense that segregation was an unusual state of affairs in NZ. Neither contains a trace of outrage.

    Reply
  20. Scott has written more on this at The Spinoff: New Zealand’s long and violent history of anti-Indian racism

    The young Indian man assaulted on the streets of Sandringham earlier this month migrated to New Zealand believing it was a peaceful, tolerant place. Our history suggests otherwise, writes Scott Hamilton.

    We have a long history of racism and racist violence against our Indian migrants, that was perpetuated by the attack in Sandringham.

    On 4 June 1920, exactly 99 years before, New Zealand’s largest voluntary organisation held a national conference in Wellington. The Returned Services Association had been formed in 1916 by veterans of Gallipoli and other battles of the Great War. By 1920, though, the group was preoccupied by thoughts of a new racial conflict. The delegates to its conference passed a resolution declaring that New Zealand was threatened by an ‘influx of Hindus and Chinese’ and demanded that Prime Minister William Massey do something to stop this army of immigrants. The intruders were, the RSA believed, taking jobs and farms from returned soldiers, and threatening the safety of white women and children.

    Most of the early attacks against Indians were spontaneous, but soon the colony’s racists began to organise. In 1923 a retired Presbyterian minister from New Jersey named Huston toured New Zealand, promoting the Ku Klux Klan. At a meeting in Dunedin’s Knox Hall, Huston called the Klan a force for “light and truth”, and claimed that it had “saved the United States” by “putting the Negro in his place”. In August 1923 the Auckland Star announced that a branch of the Klan had been formed in the city, with the object of stopping ‘Oriental’ migration. In October an Indian-owned shop on Christchurch’s Colombo Street was vandalised, and a note saying “The KKK is here” was pushed under its door. In December four shops on Auckland’s Mount Eden Road burned down. One of the bereft shopkeepers told police he had recently been visited by a man claiming to represent the Ku Klux Klan. He had treated the man’s threats as a joke; now he knew the Klan was no joke.

    The White New Zealand League, which was founded in Pukekohe in 1926, was a more genteel vehicle for racism. The League’s campaigns against Indian and Chinese migration were endorsed by the RSA, which passed a resolution at its 1926 conference reaffirming its commitment to a ‘white New Zealand’. The Auckland Trades Council also endorsed the League’s call for the deportation of all non-white migrants from New Zealand.

    In 2003 Pukekohe’s mayor apologised to the town’s Indian community. Heather Maloney acknowledged that Indians had suffered decades of segregation and vilification, and hoped that the racism of the past had been banished from the twenty-first century.

    Recent history suggests Maloney was too optimistic. A year ago an Indian Kiwi was threatened in West Auckland, by a woman who told him to ‘go back’ to his ‘own country’. After Avi Jayapuram shared his story, scores of Indian New Zealanders used social media to document their own experiences of racism. In January last year the owner of design shop Precinct 35, Prak Sritharan, whose ancestors were part of the Waikato Indian community that hosted Manilal Doctor, recalled in a piece for Newsroom being verbally abused on four separate occasions on a Saturday night out, having rocks thrown at him, and being called a ‘black c***t’.

    https://thespinoff.co.nz/atea/27-06-2019/prehistory-of-a-beating-new-zealands-violent-anti-indian-past/

    What has been recorded by media is going to be just a small part of the history of racism and white supremacy in New Zealand.

    Reply
    • PDB

       /  28th June 2019

      Some of the most racist comments made to Asian & Indian people that I’ve ever witnessed were made by Maori. The Avi Jayapuram abuse case mentioned above involved a Maori woman & her Maori partner & was part of an influx of racist stories that came out after Serena Sun was racially abused by two other Maori women: https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12071634

      Doesn’t quite fit the ‘history of white supremacy’ theme.

      Reply
      • Some of the most racist things I’ve heard have come from Tongans, back when I lived in the kingdom. I’m sure it is true that not everyone abusing Indians racially is white. But I also think it’s fair to say that the origins of many anti-Indian prejudices lie in the colonial era, and in particular in the 1857 Indian ‘Mutiny’ and its aftermath. That was when Indians were pathologised by the British, and Indians were characterised as dangerously deceptive, dirty and unhygienic, irrationally pagan, and so on. To some extent racist motifs are like viruses, which find new hosts with time. But I think we can track them to the 19th century and the British Empire and the emergence of a new, ‘scientific’ racism after the 1857 rising (without doubt, the wars in NZ in the 1860s also played their role in the rise of this new form of racism).

        Reply
        • Kitty Catkin

           /  30th June 2019

          I’d be surprised if people who abuse Indians now know much about the history of c.19 India and such things as the Black Hole of Calcutta. You are assuming a knowledge that these people almost certainly don’t have.

          I have heard English people referring to Indians as ‘Pakis’ or ‘Punjabis’, which doesn’t show much knowledge of the Indian continent and its peoples.

          Corky claims to be Maori, or half Maori, and he has consistently made racist remarks on YNZ, far more than anyone else.

          My late husband and I once had an innocuous conversation on a bus about the thenproposed giant waka. I said that I’d rather it was made of wood. It seems impossible that anyone could have taken exception to anything that was said….but a Maori woman hammered on the window after she got off and when we looked, she was glaring at us with real hatred and giving us the finger….for being Pakeha and liking the idea of building a waka ?

          Reply

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