People’s personalities can be changed with effort over time

People’s personalities can change with age, but research shows they can also be changed with effort too. It just takes quite a bit of time.

Listener (Noted): Dunedin Study head reveals how you can change your personality

Decades of self-help books, some of them even with a bit of science at their command, suggest we can, if we put our minds to it, cherry-pick at will from among the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator’s 16 personality types or change our attachment type from preoccupied avoidant to secure.

It turns out there’s some truth among the mumbo jumbo.

Central to the nature-versus-nurture debate is whether one’s personality is fixed or mutable, and the latest word is, it’s mutable – just not quickly. The world-leading longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health & Development Study at the University of Otago has found that personality traits have a tendency to deepen as we get older, and they can be affected by life experiences.

After analysing data from a cohort of young adults at age 26, whom researchers have been tracking since birth, a landmark report from the study found work had an effect on personality.

A lot of notable research has been done as a part of the world-renowned Dunedin Study.

It found distinctive changes in personality traits between adolescence and entry into the workforce, and not always the expected ones. For instance, the much-vaunted “constraint” weighting, which measures how much self-control and conscientiousness an individual has – which is believed to be a strong precursor to a successful, well-adjusted life – was not as big a factor in affecting how people got on as young adults as their emotional maturity and outlook on life.

It was already known that people tend to become more self-disciplined and positive as they move from the teenage years into adulthood. But what the study has added to this picture is that a person’s work experiences can have a big effect on the extent and nature of those changes.

Many of us spend a big chunk of our lives at work, so it is not surprising that we can be affected by work experiences and work relationships.

The head of the “Dunedin Study” at the National Centre for Lifecourse Research, Professor Richie Poulton, says this does sound a bit obvious and there are “normative” factors in personality change, such as the effect of becoming independent, having to submit to work requirements, forming a long-term relationship and becoming a parent. Also, he says, we now know that brain development, particularly that which modifies impulsiveness, is not complete until about the age of 24. “I was still an adolescent at 26. A lot of people are, so that’s a factor here, too.”

But, Poulton says, the data’s confirmation that personality is not, as was once widely thought, unchanging is extremely reassuring. “Personality study is the field of how we deal with things and it’s helpful to know that it’s far more dynamic than we might have thought.”

This has welcome policy-formation implications, which, handily enough, Poulton is helping to shape as chief science adviser to the Ministry of Social Development, and to the Prime Minister in her role as Minister for Child Poverty Reduction.

The research has obvious implications for trying to break inter-generational cycles of poverty.

Poulton says the key time for positive change remains in early childhood, where individual temperaments can most easily be moulded to improve future well-being. Young children with a tendency to be aggressive or impulsive can be conditioned over time into more positive traits – not least because such change brings immediate benefits.

“The world rewards you when you have those positive traits, when you don’t hit people or act up or shout and you can share and communicate.”

The report says those who start life with a high score for “niceness”, meaning positive and pleasing interpersonal skills, such as sociability, did better younger and earned more.

There will obviously be exceptions, but it’s good to know that niceness is often rewarded by success in life.

Life’s difficulties only compound for people the further they get towards adulthood with negative traits such as anxiety, aggression and a sense of alienation still in the ascendancy. The study has found that those who had a higher proportion of these negative traits at 18 went on to have poorer work experiences. By 26, they had lower-prestige jobs, reported less satisfaction with their working lives and had trouble making ends meet.

“Alienated and hostile adolescents appear trapped in a self-fulfilling and vicious cycle,” says Poulton. “Their personality disposition leads them to work experiences that undermine their ability to make a successful and rewarding transition to the adult world.”

That also seems logical.

Poulton says the recent spate of self-help books on the subject of willpower are generally close to the mark in saying that long-established habits, manifestations of personality traits, can be changed – but not all at once and not quickly.

“You have to keep chipping, chipping, chipping away. And there’s the ‘nudge theory’ that your environment can encourage you towards positive behaviour and away from what you’re trying to change. But it does have to be a bit challenging, too, so you build resilience. And the other important thing is that, as your nana also said, ‘If you fall over [or] make a mistake, get up and try again.’ Mistakes, going two steps forward and one back, are inevitable. You have to keep chipping away.”

So positive personality change is possible, with time and effort.

I guess that negative change is also possible, depending on circumstances and who you associate with.

Dunedin Study documentary

The the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health & Development Study (Dunedin Study) has been running since 1972-73, with ongoing studies of the lives of around a thousand people born about 44 years ago in Dunedin.

A 4 part documentary has been made about the study and will go to air next week. It can also be viewed on TVNZ On Demand.


We are delighted to announce that the first episode of the Dunedin Study documentary series goes to air in New Zealand on Tuesday, May 31, at 9.30pm on TV ONE programmed as “Why Am I?”

Also, as a bit of a first, TVNZ will be putting all  4 episodes up on TVNZ on Demand at 12.01 am on Monday 23rd

Study details:

The ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study  is a detailed study of human health, development and behaviour.

The Dunedin Study has followed the lives of 1037 babies born between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973 Queen Mary Maternity Hospital, Dunedin, New Zealand, since their birth. The Study is now in its fifth decade and has produced over 1150 publications and reports, many of which have influenced or helped inform policy makers in New Zealand and overseas.

Documentary preview:

World TV Networks queue for “Spellbinding” Study Documentary

Tuesday 16th February 2016

The scientific community has long-regarded the University of Otago’s ground-breaking Dunedin Study as an invaluable research tool, but it will receive unprecedented levels of public attention when a television documentary on its findings reaches global audiences later this year.

The four-part series Why Am I? -The Science of Us will screen nationally in 2016, before reaching international audiences via networks covering 70 countries, including BBC Asia and SBS Australia.

Documentary maker, Mark McNeill, said the New Zealand On Air funded series had attracted worldwide interest because the ground-breaking study addressed “fundamental” questions about what it meant to be human.

Although widely recognised in the international scientific community as an “invaluable” research tool, and having produced some of the most quoted papers in scientific literature, the Study was almost unknown by the wider public, Mr McNeill says.

Over the past 40 years, the Study has documented every aspect of the health, development and well-being of the 1037 Study members born in Dunedin in 1972–73.

The Study has yielded some 1200 research articles, reports, books and book chapters, which have influenced thinking and policy-making both here and around the world, Professor Poulton says.

Although established as a “public good research enterprise”, it has generated NZ$12.5 million from overseas funding agencies.

Since its inception, Study findings have been used in a wide range of investigations, including child health, injury prevention, ageing, infertility, the genetic basis for antisocial behaviour, and links between drug abuse and adult psychosis.

More recently, the Study published work quantifying the pace of ageing among cohort members. It was described as the fourth most important scientific discovery in 2015 in the US publication Science News: Magazine of the Society for Science & the Public


Dope to dope

A soon to be released study will show that significant use of cannabis when young results in noticeable intellectual impairment at the age of 38.

This was mentioned during a Science Festival debate last night – “wisdom of age vs the enthusiasm of youth” – by the director of the Dunedin Study (Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study), Professor Richie Poulton.

The enthusiastic use of cannabis in youth can lead to a lack of wisdom of age.

(This is in my words from memory of what was said, plus my opinion).

Those who are not intellectually impaired will see the obvious – that too much abuse of your brain by drug taking will affect the function of your brain. And that continued excessive drug taking is risky.

I don’t know if the study will show that dope smokers are more likely to end up more dopey, or dopes are more likely to dope up. Possibly both, one leading to another which adds to the original, etc.

Booze to bozo?

Not mentioned but also quite likely is a link between excessive booze and bozoness. Once again bozos are more likely to booze too much, which in turn will lead to increased bozoness.

Most of us survive the use of recreational drugs, but the more mind altering substances we take the more chance there is of permanently alteraing our minds.