Mexico earthquake

The extent of damage and the death toll from thoday’s 7.1 earthquake in Mexico won’t become clear for a day or two, but it looks very bad, with widespread damage reported and over 200 deaths recorded so far. With many collapsed buildings it will get worse.

Guardian:  At least 217 dead after powerful earthquake hits central Mexico

The 7.1 magnitude earthquake is deadliest to hit country in more than 30 years and has brought down buildings in the capital, Mexico City

Emergency crews and ordinary people are digging through rubble with their bare hands in search of trapped survivors after a powerful earthquake stuck central Mexico on Tuesday afternoon, toppling dozens of buildings and killing at least 217 people

The magnitude 7.1 quake – the deadliest to hit the nation since 1985 – struck shortly after 1pm local time, causing violent, prolonged shaking which flattened buildings and sent masonry tumbling onto streets, crushing cars and people in the capital, Mexico City, and surrounding areas.

CNN Seismologist: What caused Mexico’s latest earthquake

Plate tectonics was the engine behind the shaking, as is true for all major earthquakes. Along the coast of Mexico, the Cocos Plate slides underneath the North American Plate, moving about three inches per year. Tuesday’s earthquake, however, was caused by crumpling arising from the downward bending of the sinking Cocos Plate, rather than directly by slippage between plates.

A similarly deep but much larger magnitude 8.1-earthquake struck two weeks ago, also from the crumpling of the Cocos Plate. It struck Mexico 400 miles to the southeast and offshore, not far from Guatemala, and killed dozens of people.

In the history of Mexican earthquakes, Tuesday’s was coincidentally the 32nd anniversary of the 1985 Michoacan earthquake, which resulted in thousands of deaths. The 1985 earthquake was the more typical great earthquake that breaks the boundary between the plates, and caused great devastation in Mexico City despite being more than 100 miles distant.

Mexico City’s downtown area is notoriously vulnerable to earthquakes because of the very soft and wet ground underneath. Its soil amplifies shaking like Jell-O on a plate, and is prone to liquefaction, which is the ability to transform dirt into a dense liquid when sufficiently churned. In the 1985 earthquake, many large buildings were destroyed, and Tuesday’s quake was another blow mostly to the older, less solidly constructed structures.

We’ve learnt a lot about building on soft ground and the risks of liquefaction after Christchurch.

 

Mexican earthquake

Yesterday there was a major 8.1 earthquake centred just off the coats of souther Mexico. there have been many aftershocks in the 4-5.7 range.

CNN: Mexico’s strongest earthquake in a century leaves dozens dead
At least 38 people have died after the most powerful earthquake to hit Mexico in a century struck off the southern coast.

The magnitude-8.1 quake, which was felt as far as Mexico City and Guatemala City, was registered off Mexico’s southern coast just as heavy rains from Hurricane Katia lashed the east. The epicenter was in the Pacific Ocean, some 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) southeast of the capital and 74 miles (120 kilometers) off the coast.

President Enrique Peña Nieto said the temblor — felt by about 50 million people across the country — was the strongest earthquake Mexico has experienced in 100 years. In September 1985, a magnitude-8.0 earthquake killed an estimated 9,500 people in and around Mexico City.

This one hit late Thursday, when many people were asleep. The states of Chiapas and Oaxaca, home to about 9 million people, are located closest to the earthquake’s epicenter. They are two of the most impoverished areas in Mexico, and were likely hit the hardest.

At least 25 people were killed in Oaxaca state, according to the Oaxaca Civil Protection Agency. Ten others died in Chiapas state and three were killed in Tabasco, local officials said.

MexicoEarthquake

This shows the number of aftershocks and also the proximity to a plate boundary:

MexicoEarthquakePlate

The plate boundaries in the region:

Image result for mexico plate boundaries

So similar to the west coast of the South Island, the Cocos Plate is driving underneath the Caribbean Plate, but there is also a collision with the North American Plate near to where these earthquakes are occurring.

‘Rumours’ about Key

As soon as John Key announced his retirement ‘rumours’ (or deliberate fake news attempts) started to do the rounds.

There were claims that Key resigned just before a book that was ‘very critical’ of him was published, he’d had an affair, he was fleeing a huge earthquake that was about to happen, Key was leaving to take up a job at the head of the IMF. At one stage Key was asked about these claims and he denied them.

The Spinoff listed Theories on why John Key resigned, ranked in order of stupidity:

7. There is going to be a huge earthquake on December 13 and John Key is fleeing

6. John Key had an affair with *insert name of anyone he has ever met here*

5. “Hidden economic reasons” (that only Winston Peters had foreseen)

4. Key was scared of a book AKA The Bomber Theorem

3. John Key wanted to spend more time with family

2. He wanted to spend more time with anyone except the MPs of the National Party

1. He wanted to make way for Prime Minister Valerie Adams

He said he really did want to spend more time with his family. No evidence has supported the rest so appear to be bunkum.

I saw another rumour variation yesterday – that the issue of North and South due out had a damaging article about Key. That has been debunked (by a strong Key critic):

The ‘big, secret story’ in North and South tomorrow is about Scott Watson, not about John Key being a shady bitch

Even though he is stepping down now the Key clobbering machine keeps swinging – and missing, except perhaps where stupid jokes are believed and get social media traction.

Earthquake, possible tsunami threat

There was been a 7.8 earthquake of the Solomon Islands an hour ago (followed by 5.5 and 5.2 aftershocks so far).

There is a potential tsunami risk to New Zealand, but no known imminent threat

It would be wise to be cautious about going anywhere near sea level at the top of the North Island until more is known.

How do you know if and when it’s safe? I don’t really know, apart from listening to news and checking Civil Defence.

Their national website says:

Tsunami

All of New Zealand is at risk of earthquakes and all of our coastline is at risk of tsunami. We can’t predict when one will happen, but we can protect ourselves and our family.

But also

No declared emergencies

Friday 9 Dec7:53 am

http://www.civildefence.govt.nz/tsunami/

Three hours earlier there was a 6.5 earthquake off the coast of California.

pacificearthquakes

North Island slow-slip follows South Island quake

There has been a lot evidence of land movement during and after what is now referred to as the M7.8 Kaikoura earthquake – it was initially said to be centred close to Culverden and Geonet still shows it as ’15 km north-east of Culverden’ (Kaikoura is about four times further away).

It is thought that the initial quake caused a chain reaction along other fault lines in the South Island, and Wellington was also affected.

Geonet has now revealed that since this movement happened there has been a ‘slow slip’ occurring further north, along the Hawkes Bay and Gisborne coast. Slow slips have been detected there before but only after North Island earthquakes.

Today Geonet posted on Coastal Uplift: How has the Kaikoura Coastline Changed which shows the extent of land movement over a large area of the South island.

Much of the northeastern coast of the South Island was uplifted during the 14th of November 2016 earthquake. We know this from photos of rock platforms covered in seaweed and marine animals such as crayfish and paua stranded above tide levels.

Our records measured the tide gauge at Kaikoura was lifted up by 1 m, and continuous GPS monitoring sites at Kaikoura and Cape Campbell were also raised by 0.7-0.9 m. At this stage we can estimate that the coast was raised between 0.5 m and 2 m from about 20 km south of Kaikoura all the way north to Cape Campbell.

The startling uplift of ~5.5 m at Waipapa Bay is a localised block pushed up between two traces of the Papatea Fault and is thankfully not representative of the whole coastline.

There was greater horizontal movement, reported to up to 10 metres in places. All those ground movement happened along a long stretch of coastline up the north east of the South Island.

kaikouraearthquake_uplift_21nov2016

Uplift and horizontal movement happened on a long stretch of coastline up the north east of the South Island.

Also today Geonet posted Gisborne and Hawke’s Bay slow-slip event follows M7.8 Kaikoura Quake

GPS stations have detected a slow-slip event under the Hawke’s Bay and Gisborne regions in the days following the Kaikoura M7.8 Earthquake.

These silent earthquakes or slow-slip events are undetectable by both humans and GeoNet’s seismographs. They can move faults the equivalent of magnitude 6+ earthquakes over a period of weeks to months, without any detectable shaking.

The ongoing slow-slip event off the North Island’s east coast has moved some GPS stations up to 2-3 centimetres.

So far. It’s only a week since the M7.8

This movement is similar to what has been observed in previous East Coast slow-slip events over the last 15 years, so is not necessarily abnormal. We see events in this area usually every 1-2 years.

We have also observed other slow-slip events happening in response to large earthquakes.

The last slow-slip event offshore of Gisborne followed the Te Araroa earthquake in September 2016 (related GeoNet story http://info.geonet.org.nz/x/ZIAvAQ).

A slow-slip event also occurred following the 2007 M6.7 Gisborne earthquake.

But this time the slow-slip began after a more distant quake.

It is possible that passing seismic waves from the M7.8 earthquake caused stress changes that triggered the slow slip event. GNS Science and GeoNet and scientists are keeping a close eye on the event as it evolves.

So the Culverden quake may have triggered the Kaikoura and Seddon quakes (and three other fault line breaks), nudged across Cook Strait to Wellington and may rearranged stresses enough up the east coast of the North Island to start the slow-slip.

slowslip_hb_and_gisb

This instability covers a large area in which many of New Zealand’s significant earthquakes have occurred.

nz_faults

The initial Culverden quake was on the Hope fault line which reaches back to the top of the Alpine Fault where it breaks apart into Marlborough’s mess of mountains.

Also today Geonet updated it’s statistics based scenarios and forecasts which includes the probability of aftershocks:

  • 99% M6.0-6.9  in the next year (89% within 30 days)
  • 38% >=M7 in the next year (20% within 30 days)

There is no way of knowing, if another large quake occurs, where it would be. There is a lot of uncharted territory here.

What to do about it?

If you feel an earthquake:

Don’t run outside, many injuries are caused by things falling from buildings. Beware of breaking glass.

And if you are close to sea level near the coast don’t wait for a knock on your door or a warning siren, move inland or to higher ground.

And hope that the slow-slip eases the pressure gradually so nothing major gives suddenly.

Tough outlook for earthquaked towns

The towns worst affected by this week’s earthquakes are having to deal with massive problems with damaged houses and wrecked infrastructure.

One of the biggest problems facing their recovery will be business, and that is affected substantially by inaccessibility due to wrecked roads, especially in Kaikoura.

Getting good access from the south will be difficult enough (a rough inland road for emergency access only has been opened) but getting a through road will be a major challenge.

kaikouraroadslip

One of a number of landslides blocking the Kaikoura coast road.

RNZ: Kaikoura fears becoming a ghost town if State Highway 1 ‘lifeline’ stays closed

Kaikoura business owners say the town could die once the relief runs out, and only reopening State Highway One will save it.

SH1, the main route to Kaikoura from the north and south, is closed. It sustained significant damage, with cracks, fissures and landslides. The New Zealand Transport Agency said restoring full access would take several months.

Damage to sea life, the fisheries industry and wildlife will affect the town’s biggest tourists attractions, such as whale watching, dolphin encounters and the seal colony.

Kaikoura will be badly affected without tourism. They are certain to lose this summer’s trade.

Dwayne Fussell owns Coastal Sports. He has lived in the town for 15 years and is raising a family.

The town’s businesses were seasonal. They made money over summer and struggled through winter, he said.

“If you don’t make that [money] through the December, January months, you’re not here the following summer.

Only reopening SH1 would bring the visitors back, he said. If the tourists stayed away, the businesses would disappear.

“SH1 is our lifeline. We need it,” he said.

Unless the main highway is reopened right up the coast to allow through traffic – and months to repair it looks very optimistic – then Kaikoura is in trouble.

Even when the highway is reinstated they will require costly repairs and re-establishment of facilities. Some of the coastal fisheries and wildlife will have been badly affected by the earthquake, but it is unknown at this stage how the big draw cards, the dolphins and especially the whales will have been affected.

And even with facilities and roads restored they will have to overcome fears and a reluctance of tourists to venture down a very risky looking coastline.

Hamner Springs is another town reliant on tourism. Even though they weren’t far from the first earthquake epicentre the town was remarkably unscathed and has reopened for business, but through a combination of fear of more earthquakes and a lack of coastal through traffic they are suffering.

Newshub: Hanmer Springs a ‘ghost town’ – business owners

Hanmer Springs businesses are desperate for tourists to visit after a large drop in numbers following Monday’s 7.8 magnitude quake.

The quake was centred about 25km southeast of Hanmer Springs, but despite its proximity, the village suffered very little damage.

Hanmer Springs Thermal Pools and Spa general manager Graeme Abbott says there’s been a noticeable drop in visitors.

On a “normal day”, he would expect between 500-600 visitors, but on Tuesday he only had around 150.

“It’s gradually climbing up but still nowhere near what we would usually expect,” Mr Abbott says.

“The reality is we had a major earthquake here and power outages and road closures so people couldn’t get here, but that’s all cleared up now.”

Mr Abbott says there is no need for people to stay away from Hanmer Springs.

“The village is undamaged. All the businesses are open.”

In time it mightn’t be so bad for Hamner as the detour south runs near them – in fact it might improve things for them as tourism flows pick up.

But Kaikoura especially, and other towns and regions on the coastal route like Cheviot and the Waipara wine region to the south will find business tough for a year or two at least.

To the north some Marlborough vineyards and wineries were damaged by the earthquakes, and the Picton to Christchurch detour route that goes nearly to the West Coast and back across Lewis Pass, bypasses Blenheim so they are also likely to be affected there.

It’s interesting to see Google Maps and the AA Route Finder showing the detour rather than the munted coast road already. The detour extends the normal 350 kilometre trip to 480 km, and obviously misses all the coastal scenery.

Other regions will probably benefit, but the affected towns and area will struggle to survive as they were.

Measuring the ground movement

Geonet have been busy measuring how much the ground moved in this week’s earthquakes (it is still moving in some parts).

GPS allowed rapid detection of land movements due to M7.8 earthquake

Within a couple of hours of the M7.8 earthquake, GeoNet was able to use the GPS data to estimate the initial displacements of the Earth’s surface that occurred during the earthquake.

kaikouraearthquake_web_18nov2016

What the GPS revealed was astonishing. It turns out that the earthquake shifted the land at Cape Campbell (the northeast tip of the South Island) to the north-northeast by more than 2 m, and up vertically by almost 1 m.

This means that Cape Campbell is now more than 2 m closer to the North Island than it was before the earthquake. Similarly, Kaikoura has moved to the northeast by nearly a metre, and has been lifted upwards by 70 cm.

Hanmer Springs, which was our closest GPS site to the quake epicentre, jumped eastward by approximately 50 cm. All of this movement happened during the earthquake in a matter of seconds.

A lot more of the country moved to a lesser extent.

Not only did the earthquake shift landmasses in the northern South Island, but it also caused movements across most of the country.  

gps3

In the lower North Island, the east coast has shifted west by 1-5 cm, while the Wellington and Kapiti regions were shunted 2-6 cm to the north. Christchurch and Banks Peninsula didn’t miss out on the action, either—they are now approximately 2 cm further south than they were the day before the quake.

Some parts of the west coast of the South Island have been shifted eastward by as much as 10 cm. The northern North Island and southern South Island only moved a few millimeters.

Satellite mapping shows horizontal movements.

cViewing the M7.8 Kaikoura earthquake from space

A technique called InSAR, which stands for ‘Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar’, utilises radar satellites orbiting ~700 km above the earth to precisely measure the distance between the ground and the satellite. If the ground moves between two subsequent satellite passes, due to an earthquake or volcanic eruption, then the distance between the ground and the satellite changes. Observing these changes in the positon of the land with InSAR enables us to generate detailed maps of ground movement, often with centimeter-level accuracy.

The satellite images reveal huge changes in land movement across the Hope and Kekerengu faults, as well as several other faults in the region. 

To the east of these faults, the land went mostly southwest (see blue area in the figure on the left). In contrast, to the west of these faults the land moved mostly northeastwards (see red area in figure on left).

Sharp changes in land movement are visible on the InSAR images, and show us where the faults ruptured to the Earth’s surface.

insar_1_cropped

Horizontal offsets from radar data. The red colours show up to 5 m of horizontal motion of the land towards the north-east and blue colours show up to 6 m of land movement to the southwest. The yellow lines show faults that appear to have ruptured.

insar_2_wtrmkd

An interferogram generated using data from a Japanese Space Agency satellite. Each set of rainbow-coloured contours represent 11.5 cm of movement. Where the colored contours are closest together is where the largest changes in land motion are occurring.

These are different ways of showing ‘much munting’.

And there is likely to be more to come, although hopefully to a lesser extent.

Earthquake upgraded to 7.8

Gerry Brownlee has informed media that Geonet Science have upgraded Monday’s initial earthquake from 7.5 to 7.8, making it officially a whopper.

This makes it a similar size to the largest shocks recorded in New Zealand:

  • M 7.8, Dusky Sound, 15 July 2009The earthquake which struck the Fiordland region in the evening of Wednesday 15 July was the biggest since the Buller and Hawke’s Bay earthquakes of 1929 and 1931.
  • M 7.8, Hawke’s Bay, 3 February 1931The 1931 Hawke’s Bay earthquake caused the largest loss of life and most extensive damage of any quake in New Zealand’s recorded history.

That last one, from 1855, caused extensive damage and ground upheaval around Wellington.

This upgrading has followed recalculations of what was a complex combination of shocks. It will lead to upgrading of probability predictions of more and larger after shocks.

USGS had always rated it at that: M7.8 – 53km NNE of Amberley, New Zealand

The November 13, 2016 M 7.8 earthquake in North Canterbury, New Zealand, occurred as the result of shallow oblique-reverse faulting on or near the boundary between the Pacific and Australia plates in South Island, New Zealand. 

The complexity of the event, involving a main energy release delayed by about 40 s, combined with an early aftershock distribution extending about 150 km to the north-northeast of the mainshock, suggests the potential for triggered slip on the Pacific:Australia subduction zone interface.

This matches current Geonet explanations that the initial quake, which last for 30-40 seconds probably triggered and was followed by a chain reaction moving north east affecting multiple fault lines, now thought to be at least 6.

This map shows revised understanding of that fault system in relation to the shocks.

kaikoura-earthquake-faults-e1479265716143

The Kaikoura earthquake

Commonly large earthquakes break a single fault in the earth’s crust and aftershocks occur in a focused area around that fault as the crust adjusts to the movement. Monday’s event was much more complicated. The location of aftershocks and field observations of where the crust has broken (see map) indicate that earthquakes occurred on more than one fault.

Already, it looks as though parts of well-known faults such as the Hundalee, Hope and Kekerengu Faults have ruptured (broken) and also parts of less well-known or unknown faults around Emu Plains, The Humps Fault zone and Waipapa Bay have also ruptured. Such a sequence of earthquakes occurring on different faults in such a short time-frame has not been witnessed before in New Zealand. There will be many types of data and days of collection and analysis required to make sense of what happened and what the implications of this earthquake sequence are for the future.

The Spinoff has more explained by GNS Science geologists Nicola Litchfield in This stunning map shows that six faults – at least six – ruptured in the big Kaikoura quake

That’s a lot of faults.

Yes. Usually you expect one big earthquake on one big fault, but like in the Christchurch earthquakes, and in fact we saw this in Edgecumbe in 1987, we often get these complex ruptures, where multiple faults rupture in the one earthquake. But this was a bit of a surprise, as to how many and which ones have ruptured.

Do we know which one went first?

The earthquake started in the south. So the big red dot, the M7.5, that’s the epicentre of the first earthquake, so we’re pretty certain that the faults just to the north of that – the Emu Plains, the Humps fault, the Hundalee fault – went first, then it continued up the coast, up to, a little bit on the Hope fault but particularly the Waipapa Bay and the Kekerengu fault went second.

I certainly felt that in Wellington: when I woke up I felt two parts to the earthquake, and we think that’s what happened, we had a southern part and then a more northern part.

I think the first part, the southern part, was about 30 seconds, and then followed immediately afterwards by the ruptures up to the north. Most people would consider that just one big long earthquake.

Does each one of those ruptures cause its own aftershocks?

Yes, you can see the cloud of aftershocks that have happened and they’ll be focused around all those faults.

More to come on this no doubt, for those who are interested in the details.

In the meantime a road from the south to Kaikoura has been opened, but is open to ‘army grade 4 wheel drive vehicles’ so it is not open to the public.

The House shaken

Ironically, and disconcertingly for some, while Bill English was answering questions on dealing with earthquakes a sizeable quake rocked the house. English paused briefly, then carried on, but some around him looked around with obvious concern, including John Key.

At about 1:20 there was a 5.8 shake 15 km east of Seddon (it’s about 70 km from there to Wellington across Cook Strait):

Earthquake, Kaikōura—Economic Impact

2. MATT DOOCEY (National—Waimakariri) to the Minister of Finance: What advice has he received about the economic impact of the Kaikōura earthquake?

Hon BILL ENGLISH (Minister of Finance): At this point, the priority is on getting assistance to those who need it, and restoring services to affected areas. There is no funding constraint on that; the job just simply has to be done. Treasury has provided some preliminary advice, which is that the Kaikōura quake is significant, but it is going to be quite difficult to get a clear picture of overall cost.

Matt Doocey: What steps is the Government taking to respond to the earthquake?

Hon BILL ENGLISH: The shorter-term steps have been outlined by the Prime Minister, and the Minister in charge of earthquakes—[Earthquake]

Hon David Parker: It’s working.

Hon BILL ENGLISH: It is working. So we know that repairing roads and other utilities is a costly and long-term solution, which is likely to have an impact on Government expenditure and will have some impact on tax revenue.

Matt Doocey: How well placed is New Zealand to deal with the consequences of the earthquake?

Hon BILL ENGLISH: This time I will be more careful with what I say. Ha, ha! The economy is generally in good shape. Government debt is relatively low. We have budget surpluses. We are in about as good a shape as we could be to deal with this natural disaster.

Matt Doocey: What financing options does the Government have to respond to the Kaikōura earthquake?

Hon BILL ENGLISH: There is a range of pretty straightforward options. The Government has capacity to borrow, to the extent that we do not actually have cash surpluses, and we want to make sure that financing is not an impediment to the rapid recovery, particularly for the vital transport links that have been so affected by the quakes.

Earthquake – update information

Key facts from RNZ:

  • A 7.5 magnitude earthquake struck near Hanmer Springs at 12.02am on Monday.
  • There have been two confirmed deaths. One person died in a house that collapsed in Kaikoura, and a second person died at a house in Mt Lyford, inland from Kaikoura.
  • Scores of severe aftershocks have hit.
  • Kaikoura is still cut off from the rest of the country, with major landslides blocking the roads in and out.
  • Six people suffered moderate to serious injuries in Kaikoura and were airlifted to hospital; another 18 were treated for minor injuries.
  • Most of Wellington’s CBD will open as normal on Tuesday morning, with parts of Featherston St cordoned off.
  • People living near the Clarence River were told to evacuate after a dam breach. A group of kayakers, and another group of 16 rafters, have been found safe.
  • Tsunami warnings have been cancelled, but people are advised to stay vigilant near coastal waters.

Morning update (Tuesday 15 November).:

  • Mass evacuations are due to begin this morning from quake-hit Kaikoura, on the South Island’s east coast.
  • The town is cut off by road and rail, and the navy ship HMNZS Canterbury has been sent to help bring supplies and get people out.
  • 1200 tourists are believed to be stranded in Kaikoura, and RNZ News has been told as many as 50 helicopters will also help evacuate them.
  • Large aftershocks have continued to rattle buildings and nerves overnight in the town of about two-thousand people.
  • Civil Defence says only three days’ supply of fresh water remain.
  • The Takahanga Marae deputy chairperson, Major Timms, says the town’s concrete water tank has split in two. The marae yesterday fed about 700 people in the aftermath of the quake and is expecting large numbers again today.
  • A team of specialist engineers will begin inspecting earthquake-damaged buildings this morning.
  • The Civil Defence national controller David Coetzee (could-seer) says about 50 buildings in Wellington need further assessment. And the engineers will also carry out assessments of several buildings in Kaikoura. Mr Coetzee expects it will take a couple of days to get a complete picture of the extent of the damage.

Wellington:

  • You may be able to head back to work today, but you should check with your boss to make sure you can go back to your building – and use your commonsense.
  • Commuter rail services in Wellington are expected to return to normal schedules today after yesterday’s quake related suspensions operator Metlink says.
  • The capital’s bus services are running but are diversions are in place in the central business district  to allow inspection of buildings for quake and wind damage.
  • The Fire Service says there were no major callouts in the capital overnight although Civil Defence said there were some instances of broken glass being dislodged by last night’s winds.
  • Some areas of the CBD remain cordoned off due to the risk of further glass and debris being dislodged by strong wind.
  • Civil Defence says Central Wellington will be open for business today  but people will need to use their commonsense and check with their employers whether their building has been inspected and deemed safe to enter.
  • A KiwiRail spokeswoman said two freight only Interislander ferry crossings of Cook Strait were made last night but passenger services were yet to resume.

http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/national/318002/live-new-zealand’s-7-point-5-quake